Artificial Intelligence all over the Place of intelligence ThingsMarch 11, 2021
In the 1980s, there was a lot of interest in the field of artificial intelligence in the United States. Skeptics emerged in the 1990s after the very high expectations of the 1930s, when the limitations of our current computers were emphasized at the time. Much of the skepticism of the 1990s has passed, and one of the major scientific and industrial challenges of the 21st century is the development of an artificial intelligence system (AIS).
The development of AIS is aimed at creating new technologies that will provide a solution to problems in electronics and heavy industry, agriculture, energy and resource conservation, transport, human health, public safety, national security and other areas.
Speaking at a conference in Buenos Aires in 1995, Albert Arnold Gore, Jr. (US Vice President 1993-2001 under President Bill Clinton) commented, “These highways, or more accurately networks of distributed intelligence, allow us to exchange information, connect and communicate as a global community. Allowed Through these connections, we will achieve stronger and sustainable economic progress, stronger democracy, better solutions to global and local environmental problems, better health care and, ultimately, a greater understanding of shared leadership on our small planet. ‘
In the process of evolution of the man-machine system, the role of man decreases in comparison with the role of the machines that he controls. To perform routine tasks, machines are increasingly equipped with control subsystems, as a result of which man-machine systems are called “semi-automatic” systems. Gradually, many semi-automatic systems turned into automated ones.
Thanks to computer systems, many areas of technology have undergone dramatic changes over the past few decades. Previous machines performed tasks assigned to them by humans. Today, these machines are equipped with highly advanced programmable control systems and a variety of sensor devices that enable them to perform a variety of human tasks, including creative problem solving. Meanwhile, engineers and scientists working on bionic techniques are moving closer to building machines that can do some humanitarian work for people with disabilities. Consequently, the prerequisites for the birth of artificial intelligence appeared.
Ray Kurzweil, in his very interesting book The Singularity Is Real, has found a suitable metaphor for describing the proliferation of computer systems. He commented, “Improving computer performance is like water slowly filling the landscape. Half a century ago, he began to drown the Terai, robbing people of calculators and clerks, but leaving most of us dry. The flood has now reached the foothills, and our outpost is considering retreating. We feel safe at our peaks, but at the current rate, they too will drown over the next half century. ‘
It’s also a fair statement about artificial intelligence (AI). Over the years, several artificial intelligence programs and systems have successfully copied individual functions of the human brain and improved human cognitive and decision-making abilities. As a result, few existing machines can now perform knowledge-based human operator tasks with higher quality. The inventor of the Lisp programming language, John McCarthy, who coined the term “artificial intelligence” in his proposal at the 1956 Dartmouth Conference, defines AI as “the science and technology of making intelligent machines.”
The word “intellect” comes from the Latin “intellect” and is defined as “reason, the powers of human thinking.” According to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary, “intelligence” has many meanings:
- Ability to learn, understand or deal with new or difficult situations: for example, skillful use of reason or the ability to apply knowledge to manipulate a person’s environment or think according to objective criteria.
- Information pertaining to an adversary or potential adversary or area; And the agency is in charge of obtaining such information.
- sharpness of mind
- Basic Eternal Properties of Divine Mind (Christian Science)
- the ability to do computer work
It makes sense to analyze the definition of “the ability to perform the functions of a computer.” At first glance, an executable computer program that provides computer functions (such as computing or writing text) lacks intelligence. However, consider for a moment that “human or animal instinct” is the innate nature of a living organism in relation to certain behavior. Based on our knowledge of computers, we can think of “instinct” as a collection of programs written in genetic material such as DNA.
When a worker completes his tasks automatically, it means that his brain has the necessary “programs” for automated tasks. In part, these programs have been created based on the specialized training they received so that they can get the job done. Inborn and acquired programs are part of human intelligence or intelligence. It is the same with an executable computer program. This program translates some of the intelligence of its creators into a language (code) that the machine understands.
Therefore, the computer program being executed has some intelligence. Modern computer systems, for example, can choose the optimal solution or perform rational analysis of external influences for this solution, are intelligent systems. This is why AI is a powerful resource for solving a wide range of problems (including those not formally included) for which several solutions are currently known.
Historically, the term “intelligence” has been associated with government organizations (agencies) that collect information about national security and defense goals, such as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) in the United States. Today this term has a broader meaning, practical application for real applications and products. Artificial intelligence techniques include elements found in cybernetics, computer science, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, linguistics, operations research, economics, management theory and mathematics, among others. Artificial intelligence is also associated and intersected with areas such as robotics, control systems, planning, data mining, and logistics.
An artificial intelligence system is an implementation of artificial intelligence. In other words, AI can be called an “artificial intelligence application”. The term “AI” is also used to describe the intellectual asset of new machines or programs. Many artificial intelligence experts predict that by the middle of this century, intelligent machines will surround us everywhere. Machines like robots are already touching our lives. Cars, electronic devices and aircraft are assembled and tested using various robotic machines. Accessible to students and other ordinary users, computers have saved the world from the information explosion, thanks in large part to the use of intelligent machines. Virtually all machines around us are becoming smarter with intelligent applications. The revenue generated by the AI and robotics industry is now in the billions of dollars.
With advanced computer systems used in motion control or production, it is recommended to maintain human capacity to solve bottleneck problems in real time. Human-machine systems can exist with different levels of automation (from manual to autonomous), and artificial intelligence systems can have different levels from simple to very complex.
Today, there are many artificial intelligence applications in industry, business, medicine, automotive navigation, communications, military operations, space exploration, and so on. The average person may know little or nothing about current AI applications, but they face the consequences of AI many times every day. For example, the amazing functionality of everyday machines such as cars, sewing machines, kitchen appliances, and the Internet, or the quality of television images, films, and telephony are all common applications of many artificial intelligence systems. High-tech products.
AIS will certainly become commonplace in the very near future, as the widespread use of these systems will bring greater prosperity and prosperity to the entire population of our planet. Intelligent automation systems, various advisory programs and robots, and willpower can do work that we either cannot or do not want to do. The article is an excerpt from the book “Artificial Intelligence Around Us” published by Bookstand Publishing.